A. Reason Choosing Titles
Is the reason for choosing the title in the paper entitled "Borobudur Temple" is as follows:
1. We as students who still need a lot of knowledge that need to be in the know
2. As students In order to dig deeper knowledge of science and develop
3. As students attracted to the beauty and cultural arts building of Borobudur Temple
4. To find out more about the history of Borobudur Temple
B. Problem Limitation
In order to discussion in accordance with the wish that the author can be achieved with the proper and correct then the authors limit the problem as follows:
1. How History Borobudur?
2. Is The Meaning of Borobudur?
3. Objects - anything that's in Borobudur?
4. How To Object Role Borobudur Temple Tour?
C. Destination All Want In Reach
With him in this paper, the writer has an ultimate goal to reach is as follows:
1. To know and appreciate the history of Borobudur Temple
2. As a student must know the background at Borobudur dirikannya
3. To know the meaning and the meaning contained in the Borobudur temple complex of buildings
4. Knowing the role as the object of the Borobudur Temple Tour
D. Source - Source The In Use
Resources - Resources that are being used for the manufacture of this paper is as follows:
1. Descriptive method: the method of describing the problems that exist in the present
2. Method Biography: That is the method by studying the rock - rock magazines and other media
3. Observation method: the authors go directly to the field for the research so you can easily get the data - data
4. And information from several community leaders around the Borobudur Temple
A BRIEF HISTORY OF TEMPLE Borobudur
A. Time In Build
Many books - historical books written about the Borobudur Temple Borobudur Temple will but when it was set up it can not be in the know with certainty but an estimate can be obtained by writing the brief in pahatkan above the original foot frame Borobudur reliefs (Karwa Wibhangga) denotes letters similar to that in getting from prasati at the end of the century - until the early 8th century - 9th of evidence - evidence that can pull in the conclusion that the Borobudur Temple was founded around the year 800 AD
The above conclusion was proved correct in accordance with the framework of Indonesian history in general and also sejrah are located in areas central java During his period, especially among the century - and the mid-8th century - 9th century in the famous Golden House of Syailendra this triumph in the mark in rise and a large number of temples on the slopes - the slopes of the mountain most distinctive buildings standing hindu while scattered on the plains - the plains adaaalah typical Buddhist building but there are also some typical Hindu
Therefore, it can pull in the conclusion that the Borobudur Temple was built by the dynasty Syailendra famous in history because for the business to the high and exalts menjungjung Mahayana Buddhism.
Borobudue the magic world of towering tinggidi between the lowlands around
Will never mamasuk sense they saw the greatest art is the result of the work is very impressive and does not make sense anymore when the say have experienced damage to Borobudur Temple
Borobudur temple that is so memorable for a long period even centuries - old buildings that faced with these great at the destruction process. Kira - think only 150 years old temple of Borobudur in use as a center of pilgrimage, a short time in comparison with the age when workers decorate / build a natural hill with a stone of Borobudur Temple - stone under the rule of the very famous is Samaratungga, around the year 800 - with the end of 930 M Mataram kingdom knew life and cultural center shifted to the east java
Thus for the long neglected, abandoned old - there - here grow sorts - kind of wild plants which over time become overgrown and covered the building. At about - about - century Borobudur 10 abandoned and forgotten.
It was not until 1814 AD thanks to efforts of Sir Thomas Stamford Rafles Borobudur Temple emerged from the darkness of the past. Rafles was Lieutenant Governor-General of England, when Indonesia was in the master / in jajah England in 1811 AD - 1816 AD
In 1835 M all temples in what is to be freed from the scene by the President of the second barrier named Hartman, Karen so interested to Borobudur temple, so he sought further cleanup, the debris that still covers the temple in sigkirkan and land cover tunnel - tunnel of the temple in the temple shingga rid of all the better in the previous comparison.
C. First Rescue
Since the find began the Borobudur temple in the business of repairs and restoration return the Borobudur Temple building originally - originally performed only on a small - scale and making pictures - pictures and photo - photo relief. The restoration of Borobudur Temple in mining time held in the year 1907 AD - 1911 AD under the leadership of Van Th eRF with the intention is to avoid damage - even greater damage from Borobudur temple building, although many parts of walls or a wall - a wall of the bottom three levels terutam Northwest side, North and Northeast who still looks crooked and very worrying for the building itself but the work pengunjungmaupun Van Erp has been temporarily DSI Borobudur can salvage from a greater damage.
Regarding the gate - the gate has only a few at that time had done to restore the past glory, but also needs to be aware of that year - the year in through Borobudur during hidden in the bush - the bush was covered indirectly adan protect from bad weather that may could damage the building of Borobudur Temple, Van Erp and meleseknya believes sloping walls - the walls of the building was not seriously endanger the building, opinion until 50 years later did nothing wrong but since the year 1960 AD the opinion of Mr. Vanerf that began in doubt and the fear will no further damage
D. Restoration of Borobudur Temple
The restoration of Borobudur temple in the start date of August 10, 1973 prasati commencement of refurbishment work Borobudur temple is located in the North West Facing eastward refurbishment employees not less than 600 of whom are workers - young workers and SIM a high school graduate who was given the education building particularly on the theory and practice Chemika in Archaeology (CA) and the Archaeological Technology (TA)
Archaeological Technology duty to disassemble and assemble stone - stone Borobudur Archaeological Chemika while on duty cleaning and repairing the stone - a stone that had cracked and broken, jobs - are the archaeological pekerjan above all bodies handled by the restoration of Borobudur temple, while the work of a technical nature such as the provisionprocurement of transport materials - building materials handled by the contractor (PT Nidya CONTRUCTION WORKS and THE INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION OF THE FILIPINE).
Part - part of the Borobudur Temple is part Rupadhatu pugar ie where a lower level than a square foot while the Borobudur temple and the terrace I, II, III, and the main stupa pugar participate in the restoration was completed on February 23, 1983 AD under the leadership of DR Soekmonowith the mark of a stone weighing prasati + 20 Tons.
Inscription inauguration of the completion of the refurbishment was in the west yard with a huge stone in two parts make up with one facing north to east facing one another in writing of the inscription is handled directly by the experts and skilled workers from Yogyakarta who worked on the restoration project of Borobudur temple.
E. Borobudur Temple
a. Description Banguan Borobudur Temple
Borobudur Temple was built using as many as 55 000 M3 Adhesit stone building that pyramid-shaped temple of Borobudur terraces - steps with stairs rising to the number - four sides (North, South, East And West) at the Borobudur temple there is no room in which people can enter but can not go upstairs alone.
Borobudur Temple building width 123 M
Length 123 M Borobudur Temple building
At the turning point of 113 F
Borobudur Temple building height and 5.30 M
At the foot of the original stone at the cap by as much as 12 750 M3 Adhesit as undaknya hall.
Borobudur temple is a replica of life in the universe which is divided into three major sections include:
1. Kamadhatu: Similar to the underworld or the world of human passion in this world are bound to desire even in the willingness and desire kusai by lust, Relief - this relief there are at the foot of the original temple which depict scenes - scenes that depict Karmawibangga is the law of cause and effect.
2. Rupadhatu: Same with the universe between the visual world in terms of human beings have left all worldly affairs and a desire and willingness to leave this section contained in the hallway of one to four alley
3. Arupadhatu: Same as above or the natural world without a way which is where the gods of this section contained in a circular terrace ingkat I, II, and III and the Stupa of Parent.
Inside the building there are statues of Buddha - Buddha statue numbered 504 pieces including the following:
Buddha statue found on the niche - niche: 432 Fruit
While on the terrace - Terrace I, II, III, amounted to: 72 Fruit
Total: 504 Fruit
For clarity the composition - the composition of a statue of Buddha on Buddha as follows:
1. Step I Teradapat: 104 Buddhist Statue
2. Step II There are: 104 Buddhist Statue
3. Step III There are: 88 Buddha statue
4. Step IV There are: 22 Buddha Statue
5. There V step: 64 Buddha Statue
6. There is a terrace First Round: 32 Buddha Statue
7. There is a terrace Round II: 24 Statue of Buddha
8. There is a terrace Round III: 16 Buddha Statue
Total: 504 Buddhist Statue
Overview of Buddhist sculpture that looks like everything but actually there is also a difference a difference that is obvious and well differentiated from each other is in the attitude tangannyayang called Mudra and is characteristic for each stone Buddha statue in his hands there are six kinds of Borobudur temple just because sort by because of the mudras that have faced all directions (South East West and North) in section V rupadhatu step or in part Arupadhatu in general describes the same point then the principal amount of which there are five mudras mudras fifth it is Bhumispara - mudra Wara - mudra , Dhayana - Mudra, Abhaya - Mudra, Dharma Chakra - Mudra.
c. Lion Statue
In addition to the statue of the Buddhist Borobudur Temple also have a statue of a lion statue lion should not be less than 32 pieces will be but if the count is now reduced in number due to various reasons one of them big lion statue located on the western side of the yard facing the west as well - if in keeping Borobudur Temple building is stately and elegant.
- Main Stupa
Larger than the Stupa - Stupa other and located in the center - most of which is the center of the entire monument building mhkota Borobudur Temple, the center line of the main stupa + 9.90 M peak of the highest in call pinakel / Yasti Cikkara, located above and also trletak Padmaganda Harmika line.
- Stupa holes / Terawang
What is meant holes or terawang stupa Stupa is located on Terrace I, II, III, within which there is a statue of Buddha.
Borobudur stupa in the number of all 72 holes in fruit, the Stupa - Stupa is located at the level Arupadhatu
I have 32 stupa terrace
Terrace II, there were 24 Stupa
Terrace III, there are 16 Stupa
Number 72 Stupa
- Small Stupa
Small stupa shaped nearly the same with the other effigies that menojol only difference is the smaller size of the stupa of others, though - if an ornament keberadaanstupa Borobudur Temple building is occupied niches - niches in the step II saampai step to V, while the first step Keben form and partly in the form of a small stupa Stupa there are small amount of fruit in 1472.
Relief Karmawibhangga part that is not visible now as the original building due to technical reasons or the other then made the stone temples in addition to a cover
Karmawibhanga Relief contained in section 160 of Kamadhatu numbered frame that clearly describes about lust and pleasure as well as effects of sin and punishment are also accepted but there is also a good deed and reward.
Which show the relief - the relief was, among others:
- Description of the mouth - the mouth of the nosy people who like to get drunk - drunk act - another act which resulted in a sin.
- Acts commendable, description of person who likes to help Pilgrimage to the shrine generous to others and other - that cause people get the tranquility of life and can reward
Of all the issues concerning the history of Borobudur Temple brdirinya This can in fact take the following conclusion:
1. Borobudur Temple History
Borobudur set time can not be known with certainty but an estimate can be obtained by writing brief in pahatkan feet above the original frame Borobudur reliefs (Karwa Wibhangga) shows similar to that in the letter to get from prasati at the end of the century - 8th to early century - nine of evidence - evidence that can pull in the conclusion that the Borobudur Temple was founded around the year 800 AD
2. Location and Location of Borobudur Temple
Borobudur Borobudur is located in the district of Magelang District located south of + 15 km south of the town of Magelang kedu the hilly terrain was almost entirely surrounded by mountains, the mountains that surround them at the Borobudur temple east lies Mount Merapi volcano Merbabu and West, Sea and Mountain Cleft Mount Sindoro.
3. Name And The Meaning of Borobudur Temple
Borobudur name comes from the combination of words and Budur Boro, Boro Sangsekerta derived from the word meaning "Vihara" meaning a complex of temples and also Bihara or dormitories (According Purwacaraka And Stuten Herm) while Budur in Bali "Bedudur" which means the Above. So the name means a dormitory or language Borobudur (Temple Complex) located on the hill
B. Suggestions - Suggestions
From making this paper the author will present some suggestions include:
1. We as the younger generation should be the next generation traffic system is a way to learn and practice diligently to become a student - a skilled and devoted student
2. We as citizens must keep and preserve the nation by maintaining its place bdaya - historic sites as the heritage of our ancestors
3. authors hope that with the development of western culture on young people expect to be able to select the peer and cultural menilia in and try to defend their own nation's culture.
1. Moertjipto, Drs Borobudur, Pawon And Mendut, Kanisus Yogyakarta 1993
2. Soediman, Drs Borobudur One World Wonders Gramedia Yogyakarta, 1980